The Palace of Nestor was the administrative seat of the kingdom of Pylos, and Messenia was governed from here during the 14th century BCE. It is the best preserved Mycenaean palace in all mainland Greece and the second most important center in the Mycenaean world after Mycenae itself. There were various building phases at the site, of which only the final one is today visible. The final phase preserves clear traces of the conflagration that destroyed the palace ca. 1200 BCE. The palatial complex consists of four principal buildings (the Southwestern Building, or the Palace of Neleus, the Main Building, the Northeastern Building and the Wine Magazine), and several smaller constructions. The splendid Main Building was two storeys high, with great courts, many storage magazines, private apartments, workshops, baths, staircases, lightwells, and a drainage system. The walls of its halls and its floors were covered with impressive paintings. Wood, stone, and clay were the basic materials used for building. There are many elements characteristic of Minoan architecture, more than found in any other palace on the Greek mainland: these include orthostates, walls of ashlar masonry, a system of half-timbering, courts, baths, lightwells, a drainage system, horns of consecration, and a double axe masons’ mark. Over 1,000 fragments of clay tablets with writing in the Linear B script came to light in excavations, and their texts document the operations of the palatial complex as the economic, administrative, political, and religious center of Mycenaean Messenia. The tablets give us the name of the center, pu-ro (Pylos), while also describing the geographical structure of the kingdom of Pylos and its administrative division into two provinces.

They came to Pylos, the well-built citadel of Neleus (Homer, Odyssey, Book 3, 4-5)

The palatial complex that was discovered on the hill of Ano Englianos is widely known as the Palace of Nestor because of its striking resemblance to the palace of wise king Nestor at Pylos described by Homer.

According to tradition, Nestor’s father was Neleus, a prince from Thessaly. Neleus, after a dispute with his brother Pelias (king of Iolkos), left Thessaly and settled in Messenia, where he either founded Pylos or seized it from its original founder, Pylos of Megara.

The earliest traces of human activity on the Englianos hill are dated to the Middle Helladic period (2050-1680 BCE). During the Early Mycenaean period (1680-1400 BCE) habitation continued and the Englianos hill was surrounded by a defensive wall. During the succeeding Late Helladic IIIA period (1400-1300 BCE) many houses were built on the acropolis and on the lowest terraces of the hill. During the Late Helladic IIIB period (1300-1200 B.C.) the old buildings were demolished after a fire and the area of the acropolis became exclusively available to the wanax. At this time, the palatial complex, the remains of which are today visible, was constructed.

The town around the palatial complex extended down the slopes and terraces of the acropolis and along the Englianos ridge. At a short distance to the north and south of the acropolis royal tholos tombs have been found, while a cemetery of chamber tombs has been discovered on a ridge that descends to the west. A shaft grave with rich offerings, dating to the 15th century BCE, has been found near the acropolis, to the north.

The Palace was destroyed by an intense fire around 1200 B.C. The Englianos hill and the settlement around it were then abandoned. Later, during the Early Iron Age (1060-900 B.C.), a small population inhabited the area.

Encyclopedia of psychology and religion on Dionysos:

Though scholars for years thought that the cult of Dionysos originated in Thrace, and was brought more recently into ancient Greece, the discovery of the name Dionysos on Linear B tablets from Mycenean Pylos, dated circa1250 BC indicates that he was present in mainland Greece well before. In Homer’s Iliad, he is referred to as a ‘‘joy for mortals’’ (Iliad: 14.325). And in Hesiod’s Theogony, he is described as ‘‘he of many delights’’ (Hesiod’s Theogony: 941). Dionysos is seen in Greek religion as having invented or discovered wine, and given this ‘‘ambivalent’’ gift to mankind, much as Demeter gave the gift of the grain to mankind.